Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Posts Tagged ‘diabetes’

cropped-mexicali-024.jpg

Free pdf:

Mexicali! a mini-gem guide to surgery in Baja, California

The pdf has been uploaded to Google books, and several other sites.

Low-cost e-format:  I managed to work out a kindle format, but Amazon.com won’t allow independent publishers to offer our books for free (except as part of a limited trial on KDP select.)  However, I have received several emails specifically asking for the Mexicali book to be placed on Amazon.com – so I am reluctantly doing so.  Please note that this e-format version is priced at the minimum – of 99 cents with a free download trial period.  (In case you are wondering, Amazon.com collects 65% of that.)

Update:

Paperback book:  The paperback version of the Mexicali book is now available!  I had hoped to offer a color version (for fans of medical photography) but for small-run books, it was going to be 28.00 a book, which seems excessive to me.  I’ve priced it at just above the cost to produce and offer it on Amazon channels for less than 7.00.

 

Advertisements

Read Full Post »

XXIX Congreso Latinoamericano de cirugia vascular y angiologia

Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia

Dr. Berrio, Vascular Surgeon, Tulua, Colombia

Dr. Jhon Jairo Berrio is  the Chief of Vascular Surgery at the Clinica San Francisco, Tulua, Colombia, which is a small community outside of Cali.  He attended medical school in Colombia, completing his general surgery residency at Hospital clinics for Carlos.  He completed additional training at New York University and he completed his vascular surgery residency in Bogota at the Hospital de Kennedy  and trained under the instruction of Dr. Albert Munoz, the current president of the Association of Latin American Vascular Surgery and Angiography (ALCVA) .  He does a range of vascular procedures such as aortic aneurysm repair, fistula creation as well as endovascular surgery but his favorite procedures are limb salvage procedures such as aorto-femoral bypass, femoral-popliteal bypass and other treatments designed to prevent amputation.

He is here in Bolivia giving a presentation on the use of Prostaglandin E1 for critical ischemia / and last chance limb salvage.

Today we are talking to Dr. Berrio about the use of prostaglandin E1 (Iloprost/ iprostadil) for peripheral vascular disease (PAD).  In the past, we have used a myriad of treatments including statins, pentoxifylline, clopidogrel and even quinine for the prevention and relief of claudication symptoms.  However, all of these previous agents are designed for early PAD and are only minimally effective at treating later stages of disease.  Treatment of severe disease (rest pain or ulceration/ ischemia wounds) has been limited to stenting (angioplasty) and surgical revascularization – but this strategy often fails for patients with microvascular disease (or disease that affects vessels that can not be operated on.)

Last effort at Limb Salvage in critical ischemia

No – Prostaglandin E is not some magic ‘panacea’ for peripheral vascular disease.  There is no such thing – but it is a medication in the treatment arsenal for vascular surgeons – and it has shown some promising results particularly in treating limb-threatening ischemia.  In fact, the data goes back over 20 years – even though most people in the United States have never heard of it.  That’s because prostaglandin E1 is more commonly used for other reasons in the USA.  It is a potent vasodilator, and in the US, this medication is often used in a different (aerosolized form) for primary pulmonary hypertension.  It is also used for erectile dysfunction.  Despite a wealth of literature supporting its use for critical ischemia it is not currently marketed for such use in the United States – and thus – must be individually compounded in a hospital pharmacy for IV use.  Supplies of this medication in this form are often limited and costly.

Intravenous Prostaglandin E1

This medication offers a desparately needed strategy for patients with critical ischemia who (for multiple reasons) may not be surgical candidates for revascularization and is a last-ditch attempt to treat ‘dry’ gangrene and prevent amputation and limb loss.  Since more than 25% of all diabetes will undergo amputation due to this condition – this is a critical development that potentially affects millions of people.  (Amputations also lead to high mortality for a variety of reasons not discussed here.)

What is Prostaglandin E1?

As mentioned above, prostaglandin E1 is a potent vasodilator – meaning it opens up blood vessels by forced the vessels to dilate.  This brings much-needed blood to ischemia tissue (areas of tissue dying due to lack of blood.)

Treatment details:

A full course of treatment is 28 days.  Patients receive 60 micrograms per day by IV.

Patients must be admitted to the hospital for observation for the first intravenous administration of prostaglandin E1.  While side effects such as allergic reactions, rash or tachycardia are rare – since this medication is given as an IV infusion, doctors will want to observe you for the first few treatments. The most common side effect is IV irritation.  If this occurs the doctors will stop the infusion and dilute it further to prevent discomfort.  Once your treatment has been established, doctors may arrange for you to have either out-patient therapy at an infusion center, or home health – where a nurse comes to your house to give you the medication.

The surgeons will evaluate your legs before, during and after treatment.  If the ischemia or rest pain are not improving, or worsen during treatment – doctors may discontinue therapy.

Prostaglandin E1 therapy is compatible with other medications for PAD such as clopidogrel, aspirin, pentoxifylline and statins, so you can continue your other medications for PAD while receiving this treatment.  However, if you are taking nitrates such as nitroglycerin, (Nitro-dur, Nitropaste) or medications for pulmonary hypertension or erectile dysfunction – please tell your surgeon.

In Colombia, the average cost of the entire course of treatment (4 weeks of daily therapy) is 12 million Colombian pesos.  At today’s exchange rate – that is  a little under $ 7000.00  (seven thousand dollars, USD).

While this is a hefty price tag – it beats amputation.  In some cases, arrangements can be made with insurance companies to cover some of the costs.  (Insurance companies know that amputation-related costs are higher over the long run, since amputation often leads to a lot of other problems due to decreased mobility).

Additional Information about Dr. Berrio:

Dr. Jhon Jairo Berrio, MD

Vascular surgeon

Calle 414 – 30

Buga, Colombia

Tele: 236 9449

Email: vascular@colombia.com

Speaks fluent English, Espanol.

References/ Additional information about peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and prostaglandin e1

Pharmacotherapy for critical limb ischemia  Journal of Vascular Surgery, Volume 31, Issue 1, Supplement 1, January 2000, Pages S197-S203

de Donato G, Gussoni G, de Donato G, Andreozzi GM, Bonizzoni E, Mazzone A, Odero A, Paroni G, Setacci C, Settembrini P, Veglia F, Martini R, Setacci F, Palombo D. (2006).  The ILAILL study: iloprost as adjuvant to surgery for acute ischemia of lower limbs: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study by the italian society for vascular and endovascular surgery.  Ann Surg. 2006 Aug;244(2):185-93.  An excellent read – even for novices.

S Duthois, N Cailleux, B Benosman, H Lévesque (2003).   Tolerance of Iloprost and results of treatment of chronic severe lower limb ischaemia in diabetic patients. A retrospective study of 64 consecutive cases .  Diabetes & MetabolismVolume 29, Issue 1February 2003Pages 36-43

Katziioannou A, Dalakidis A, Katsenis K, Koutoulidis V, Mourikis D. (2012).  Intra-arterial prostaglandin e(1) infusion in patients with rest pain: short-term results.  Scientific World Journal. 2012;2012:803678. Epub 2012 Mar 12.e Note extremely small study size (ten patients).

Strecker EP, Ostheim-Dzerowycz W, Boos IB. (1998).  Intraarterial infusion therapy via a subcutaneous port for limb-threatening ischemia: a pilot study.  Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 1998 Mar-Apr;21(2):109-15.

Ruffolo AJ, Romano M, Ciapponi A. (2010).  Prostanoids for critical limb ischaemia.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD006544.

Volteas N, Leon M, Labropoulos N, Christopoulos D, Boxer D, Nicolaides A. (1993).  The effect of iloprost in patients with rest pain.  Eur J Vasc Surg. 1993 Nov;7(6):654-8.

Read Full Post »

My first case this morning with another surgeon was cancelled – which was disappointing, but I still had a great day in the operating room with Dr.  Ham and Dr. Abril.  This time I was able to witness a bariatric surgery, so I could report back to all of you.

Dr. Ham (left) and Dr. Abril

I really enjoy their relaxed but detail oriented style – it makes for a very enjoyable case.  Today they performed a sleeve gastrectomy** so I am able to report – that they (Dr. Ham) oversewed the staple line (quite nicely, I might add).  If you’ve read any of the previous books, then you know that this is an important step to prevent suture line dehiscence leading to leakage of stomach contents into the abdomen (which can cause very serious complications.)  As I said – it’s an important step – but not one that every doctor I’ve witnessed always performed.   So I was a pleased as punch to see that these surgeons are as world-class and upstanding as everything I’d seen already suggested..

** as long time readers know, I am a devoted fan of the Roux-en-Y, but recent literature suggests that the sleeve gastrectomy is equally effective in the treatment of diabetes.. Of course – we’ll be watching the research for more information on this topic of debate. I hope further studies confirm these results since the sleeve gives patients just a little less of a drastic lifestyle change.. (still drastic but not shot glass sized drastic.)

Dr. Ham

They invited me to the show this evening – they are having several clowns (that are doctors, sort of Patch Adams types) on the show to talk about the health benefits of laughter.  Sounds like a lot of fun – but I thought I better catch up on my writing..

I’ll be back in the OR with Los Doctores again tomorrow..

Speaking of which – I wanted to pass along some information on the anesthesiologist for Dr. Molina’s cases since he did such a nice job with the conscious sedation yesterday.  (I’ve only watched him just yesterday – so I will need a few more encounters, but I wanted to mention Dr. Andres Garcia Gutierrez all the same.

Read Full Post »

There’s a new series on HBO that is a collaboration between the Institute of Medicine, the CDC and the National Institute of Health (NIH) that begins airing tomorrow night.  This is a huge undertaking that took over three years to bring to the screen.

As many of you know – Obesity, diabetes and bariatric surgery are some of the topics that have been covered fairly extensively here at Cartagena Surgery.  In fact – it’s the heart of Cartagena Surgery – since the very first surgeon interview I ever performed back in 2010 was Dr. Francisco Holguin Rueda, MD, FACS, the renown Colombia bariatric surgeon.  (Shortly after that first leap – came Drs. Barbosa and Gutierrez – which is how we ended up here today.)

I’ve also been spending time, both last week and this week in the company of several bariatric surgeons here in Mexicali. MX and plan to go to several surgeries this week – so it seemed only appropriate to publish a few articles on the topic.

Talking with Dr. Horacio Ham – Bariatric surgeon, part 1

Talking with Dr. Ham, part 2

(I’m still transcribing notes from another one of my recent interviews – with Dr. Jose Durazo Madrid, MD, FACS).

I’d also like to encourage readers to take a look at HBO’s new mini-series (four episodes over Monday and Tuesday).

Read Full Post »

Haven’t had time to sit down and write about my trip to the operating room with Dr. Horacio Ham and Dr. Rafael Abril until now, but that’s okay because I am going back again on Saturday for a longer case at a different facility.  Nice surprise to find out that Dr. Octavio Campa was scheduled for anesthesia.  Both Dr. Ham and Dr. Abril told me that Dr. Campa is one their ‘short list’ of three or four preferred anesthesiologists.  That confirms my own impressions and observations and what several other surgeons have told me.

campa

Dr. Campa (left) and another anesthesiologist at Hispano Americano

That evening we were at Hispano – Americano which is a private hospital that happens to be located across the street from the private clinic offices of several of the doctors I have interviewed.  It was just a quick short case (like most laparoscopy cases) – but everything went beautifully.

As I’ve said before, Dr. Campa is an excellent anesthesiologist so he doesn’t tolerate any hemodynamic instability, or any of the other conditions that make me concerned about patients during surgery.

Dr. Ham  and Dr. Abril work well together – everything was according to protocols – patient sterilely prepped and draped, etc..

laparoscopy

laparoscopy with Dr. Ham & Dr. Abril

I really enjoy talking with the docs, who are both fluent in English – but I won’t get more of an interview with Dr. Abril until Saturday.

w/ Dr. Ham

with Dr. Horacio Ham in the operating room after the conclusion of a successful case

Then – on Wednesday night – I got to see another side of the Doctors Ham & Abril on the set of their radio show, Los Doctores.  They were interviewing the ‘good doctor’ on sympathetectomies for hyperhidrosis – so he invited me to come along.

Los Doctores invited me to participate in the show – but with my Spanish (everyone remembers the ‘pajina’ mispronunciation episode in Bogotá, right?)  I thought it was better if I stay on the sidelines instead of risking offending all of Mexicali..

Los Doctores

on the set of Los Doctores; left to right: Dr. Rafael Abril, Dr. Carlos Ochoa, Dr. Mario Bojorquez and Dr. Horacio Ham

It really wasn’t much like I expected; maybe because all of the doctors know each other pretty well, so it was a lot more relaxed, and fun than I expected.  Dr. Abril is the main host of the show, and he’s definitely got the pattern down; charming, witty and relaxed, but interesting and involved too.. (my Spanish surprises me at times – I understood most of his jokes…)  It’s an audience participation type show – so listeners email / text their questions during the show, which makes it interesting but prevents any break in the format, which is nice.  (Though I suppose a few crazy callers now and then would be entertaining.)

Dr. Ochoa did a great talk about sympathectomy and how life changing it can be for patients after surgery, and took several questions.  After meeting several patients pre and post-operatively for hyperhidrosis, I’d have to say that it’s true.  It’s one of those conditions (excessive palmar and underarm sweating) that you don’t think about if you don’t have – but certainly negatively affects sufferers.  I remember an English speaking patient in Colombia telling me about how embarrassing it was to shake hands -(she was a salesperson) and how offended people would get as she wiped off her hands before doing so.  She also had to wear old-fashioned dress shields so she wouldn’t have big underarm stains all the time..  This was in Bogota (not steamy hot Cartagena), which is known for it’s year-round fall like temperatures and incredibly stylish women so you can imagine a degree of her embarrassment.

It (bilateral sympathectomy) is also one of those procedures that hasn’t really caught on in the USA – I knew a couple people in Flagstaff who told me they had to travel to Houston (or was it Dallas?) to find a surgeon who performed the procedure..  So expect a more detailed article in the future for readers who want to know more.

Tomorrow, (technically later today) I head back to San Luis with the good doctor in the morning to see a couple of patients – then back to the hospital.. and then an interview with a general surgeon.. So it should be an interesting and fun day.

Read Full Post »

Just finished interviewing Dr. Horacio Ham, a bariatric surgeon with the DOCS (Diabetes & Obesity Control Surgery) Center here in Mexicali.  Later this evening, we’ll be heading off to surgery, so I can see what he does first-hand.

Tomorrow sounds like a jam-packed day for the young doctor, he’s being interviewed for a University television series on Obesity in addition to his normal activities (surgery, patients) and of course, the radio show.  Turns out his guest doctor tomorrow evening is none other my professor, the ‘good doctor.’

Sounds like a great show – so if you are interested it’s on 104.9 FM (and has internet streaming) at 8 pm tomorrow night..

I’ll report back on the OR in my next post..

Read Full Post »

As my loyal readers know, I do my best to try to give fair and balanced depictions of surgical procedures, as well as reviews of medical and surgical news and research.  Over at Medscape.com – there is a new video discussion by Dr. Anne Peters, MD.  Dr. Peters is an endocrinologist and a certified diabetic education.  In this video – she talks about the realities of bariatric surgery, and these are things I think that people need to hear.

For more on Bariatric surgery – see my other posts

One of the points that she makes, is (in my opinion) critical.  While bariatric surgery has been shown to cure diabetes in many individuals – there is no medical/ surgical or other treatment to cure much of the pathology related to the development of obesity in the first place.  Obesity is more than poor dietary and exercise habits – it is a psycho-social and cultural phenomenon as well.

For people who don’t want to go to the Medscape site – I have re-posted a transcript of the video from Medscape.com below.

Bariatric Surgery a ‘Magic Bullet’ for Diabetes?

Anne L. Peters, MD, CDE

Transcript
Hi. I’m Dr. Anne Peters from the University of Southern California. Today I’m going to talk about the role of bariatric surgery in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

There have been a number of recent studies that show just how good bariatric surgery can be for patients with type 2 diabetes.[1,2] In many cases, it seems to cure type 2 diabetes (at least for now), and I think it is an important tool for treating patients with obesity and diabetes.

However, I also have concerns about bariatric surgery, concerns that go back for years as I watched its increased use. When I was a Fellow, I developed a sense of the benefit of extreme caloric restriction for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. I will never forget the first patient I had, an extremely obese man with type 2 diabetes who was on 200 units of insulin per day. His blood sugar levels remained high no matter what we did. He was a significant challenge in terms of management.

One day, he got sick. I don’t remember how or why he got sick, but he ended up in the hospital and I thought that his management would continue to be incredibly difficult. In fact, it was miraculously easy. Within 2 days, he was completely off of insulin and his blood glucose levels remained normal for the entire time he was in the hospital.

This was only a short-lived benefit, however. After he was discharged, he went back to his old habits. He started eating normally, regained the weight, and went back on several hundred units of insulin per day. But it really impressed me how acute severe caloric restriction could, in essence, treat type 2 diabetes.

I have seen many overweight and obese patients with diabetes over the years, and I have seen the frustration as patients go on drugs (such as insulin) that are weight-gain drugs, and they keep gaining more weight. Although I am a big advocate for lifestyle change, many patients can’t do much better. They can’t lose appropriate amounts of weight by their own will or through weight loss programs, or increase their exercise. Therefore, bariatric surgery remains a reasonable option.

For many of my patients who have a body mass index > 35 and type 2 diabetes, I recommend that they at least consider bariatric surgery. Interestingly, very few of my patients actually go for the procedure and I ponder why this is. In part, I think it’s because of the initial evaluation, when you are told what bariatric surgery is like and how much you have to change your habits after the procedure. Before surgery, you are eating however you want to eat and, although you may be trying to diet, there is no enforcement of that diet. After surgery, you have to change how you eat, the portions you eat, and when you eat. I know that people feel fuller, and this is a lot more than just changing one’s anatomy. I think there are significant changes in gut hormones that regulate appetite and satiety. Nonetheless, it is a big change, and many people don’t want to change their habits that much. I know I would be somewhat leery if I were to undergo a surgical procedure that would change my whole way of being. For lots of people, food has many different associations. It’s not just caloric intake; it’s festival, it’s party, it’s joy, it’s sadness. It’s something people like to do, and it hasn’t a lot to do with just maintaining a positive or neutral caloric balance.

I find that people are reluctant to change, and that is understandable. We also don’t know the long-term complications of the procedure. As an endocrinologist, I see 2 things. First, I tend to get sicker patients, so my patients who are on insulin when they undergo bariatric surgery may not get off insulin entirely. They become very disappointed because they think that bariatric surgery will cure them of their diabetes. I also see patients who are too thin, who are nutritionally deficient, who have severe hypoglycemia, or who have significant issues from the surgery itself. In some cases, these patients have needed a takedown of the surgical procedure, restoring them back to their native anatomy.

I think of bariatric surgery as a tool. It is one of many ways to treat our patients with type 2 diabetes. I am a little concerned because we don’t have long-term follow-up data. I think that all bariatric surgery programs, in addition to doing a very thorough preoperative evaluation and counseling, need to do long-term, lifelong follow-up of these patients to see how they do, to see if their obesity returns. In many cases, this does happen. [Patients need to be followed up] to see what happens to their lipids, their blood pressure, and their blood sugar levels over time, and to monitor for other complications.

I think [bariatric surgery] is something that we need to recommend to our patients, and for those in whom it’s appropriate, it is a reasonable step. This has been Dr. Anne Peters for Medscape.

 References
  1. Mingrone G, Panunzi S, De Gaetano A, et al. Bariatric surgery versus conventional medical therapy for type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2012 Mar 26. [Epub ahead of print]
  2. Schauer PR, Kashyap SR, Wolski K, et al. Bariatric surgery versus intensive medical therapy in obese patients with diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2012; Mar 26. [Epub ahead of print]

Life after Bariatric Surgery

There is also an excellent article by two nurse practitioners about the long-term interventions and health monitoring needed for wellness promotion and health maintenance after bariatric surgery.  While this article is written for other health care providers – it gives an excellent look at life after bariatric surgery, as well as an overview of the surgical techniques, pre-operative evaluation and anticipated post-operative outcomes.

Thomas, C. M. & Morritt Taub, L. F. (2011).  Monitoring and preventing the long-term sequelae of bariatric surgery.  J of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 2011, 23 (9).

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »